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Table of contents
- Stolen Child
- Infinitesimal | Definition of Infinitesimal by Lexico
- Military Offense and National Defense
He was scheduled for one last Apache training flight on Aug. It would turn out to be his last flight of any kind. Because her then-husband had died on inactive duty, she not only would be entitled to less in survivor benefits but, she learned, what little she might have gotten would be taken away because she had named her children as beneficiaries. Runk describes filling out paperwork after Barnes had died — in a state of grief, pregnant with her fourth child — without being told that naming her children as beneficiaries might turn out to be a major problem.
They lost everything. I want this to change for people.
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Advocates for the National Guard and reserves are pushing back against not only the survivor benefits inequity but also several other ways they say reservists remain separate and unequal within the U. For example, the advocates are working to ensure that reservists with significant service time can, like their military brethren in the regular services, finally be considered veterans for purposes of receiving consideration in federal hiring. Reservists and guardsmen also feel they are given short shrift in Pentagon procurements. The Senate bill contains no such provision.
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John M. Save for later. Texas Rep. Marc Veasey is trying to address the discrepancy in death benefits. Want insight more often? In October of , fifty-four Ottoman civilians died in a raid aimed at a military target that hit a mosque instead. Measured against the damage done to Louvain and Belgrade and the harm caused by later attacks during the Second World War, the violence experienced by most city dwellers as a result of bombing and long-distance urban during the First World War was relatively limited.
It was highly significant nonetheless, forcing urban residents to recognize that a new age of total war , in which armed conflict was going to affect civilians as well as soldiers, had arrived—nowhere more so than in urban areas that were densely settled. Numerous cities were occupied by foreigners, many for several years.
By November of , Germany controlled most of Belgium and much of northeastern France. These territories contained about ten million inhabitants. A majority lived in cities or towns, the largest of which was Brussels, with a population of , The second largest city, also located in Belgium, was Antwerp. The largest French cities were Lille and Roubaix.
Invasion of Lodz by Germans was followed by seizure of raw materials , finished goods, and machinery. By October of , 75, residents were also sent to Germany, for forced labor. After Russian forces evacuated Warsaw in , Poles suffered from an economic crisis that grew steadily worse during the German presence. Requisition and strict control of supplies entering the city resulted in increasing scarcity amidst growing corruption and rapidly declining living standards.
Local authorities sought to ease hardships caused by the occupation but lacked the revenues that would have enabled them to support social welfare agencies and to combat major public health emergencies. Widespread internment of Serbs who were suspected of orchestrating opposition to Habsburg rule, together with the physical damage that had preceded the Habsburg takeover, had demographic consequences that were also highly destructive. Urban destruction induced thousands of Belgraders to seek safety through flight and thus to become refugees.
In this situation, cultural and social as well as political institutions ceased to function. Whereas shelling and bombing directly affected only a few cities on a large scale and whereas only a small percentage of cities were occupied by foreign invaders, large sectors of urban populations nonetheless experienced ongoing hardships on a daily basis.
Sacrifices were imposed on civilians most notably as a result of shortages of food. Such deficits were endemic in urban areas, occurring in all of the capitals of the major combatant countries in Europe and in many other cities as well. Supplying urban centers with sufficient food was hampered by several factors. The general disruption of international trade; shortages of agricultural laborers; the lack of adequate means of transportation as a result of the need to use trains for military purposes; the need to feed people who had migrated to cities in search of employment; and British naval blockades all contributed to food shortages.
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The problem of such shortages was most severe in Russia , Germany, and Austria. Petersburg was the first major city whose inhabitants experienced serious food shortages.
Infinitesimal | Definition of Infinitesimal by Lexico
Beset by large numbers of refugees who were fleeing the invading Germans, Russian leaders were unable to move food to areas where it was most needed. Consequently, food became harder and harder to obtain. By the end of , meat, eggs, and fish had vanished from local markets, and early in the following year potatoes started to run out as well. During these months, many Berliners had little or nothing to eat except for turnips. To be sure, few if any Berliners died of starvation. Nonetheless, malnutrition became increasingly widespread, giving rise both to sharp upticks in rates of mortal illnesses such as tuberculosis and to heightened demoralization and discontent.
Similar conditions prevailed in Vienna. Galicia, a major source of food , was occupied at several points by Russian soldiers, which substantially reduced the amount of grain that could be sent to the Austrian capital. Inhabitants of Vienna were also hurt by the reluctance of Hungarians to continue to send produce to the west, preferring to look after their own interests instead of those of the Habsburg Empire as a whole. Already by the autumn of , bread was running short, and by the spring of milk and potatoes were also in short supply.
Declining supplies of additional foodstuffs led to hundreds of queues of would-be shoppers, who stood for hours outside shop windows. The situation was so dire that many inhabitants of the city were dying of starvation. Not only Constantinople, but also other cities in the Ottoman Empire suffered as a result of food shortages. The Allied blockade in the eastern Mediterranean and also along the coast of Yemen was perhaps the chief cause of these shortages. But disruption of trade among countries that bordered the Black Sea also had harmful consequences.
By early , the cost of potatoes in the Ottoman capital was thirty times higher than it had been in the summer of Other necessities, such as fat for cooking and sugar also became increasingly rare and expensive. One outcome of these developments was growing conflict between those who could afford to pay for what they wanted and those who could not.
Between and , the population of the city fell from about , to 75, Migration, forced exile, and conscription certainly played important parts in this development, but starvation and diseases that resulted from it also contributed to what was an urban catastrophe. Shortages of food—albeit less severe—were also evident elsewhere. Parisians, with their large agricultural hinterland, fared relatively well, never coming close to mass starvation. Indeed, as late as the spring of , one could still buy patisserie.
Nonetheless, German occupation of grain growing areas led to tensions between rural and urban populations over allocations, to rising prices, and to general discontent. Despite the threats posed by submarines to ships that were bringing food to Britain from overseas, enough ships were able to get through enemy lines so that—like Parisians—Londoners were never in danger of starving. Still, short supplies and rising prices caused plenty of discontent.
By , New Zealand lamb was available only in butcher shops that catered to upper-class customers. Later that year, mutton was replaced by rabbit. Over the course of the entire year, food prices rose 26 percent. In March of , the first food queues were formed, as would-be purchasers lined up and stood for hours in the hope of being able to buy limited amounts of things to eat.
By the end of the war, queues for meat as well as for tea and margarine had become more and more widespread. Residents of cities that were located thousands of miles away from the main theaters of military action—for example, in Australia and New Zealand —also suffered from food scarcity. Meanwhile, exports of foodstuffs to Britain were increased. Governmental authorities became increasingly involved in the areas of economic and social affairs in order, they hoped, to assuage popular disgruntlement and maintain social order.
At the municipal as well as the state level, public officials continued to move away from earlier reliance on the principle of laissez-faire. Observers of and participants in municipal activities in Germany were quite effusive in their celebrations of municipal government in their country. It did, however, find expression in France in postwar surveys of recent developments in Paris, Lyon, and Marseille, all of which depicted urban contributions to the recent victory over Germany in a highly favorable light. By fostering production of munitions as well as meeting the needs of their citizens, public officials and the people they governed at the local level had been indispensable for the war effort.
Many initiatives were undertaken with a view to ameliorating conditions that afflicted city dwellers during the war. All of these forms of social action and many others arose out of the desire to maintain national solidarity as well as social order. Assisted by numerous philanthropic organizations, such as the Charity Organisation Society in London,  public officials established new practices and institutions that were designed to promote social welfare by providing food, fuel, medical care, and social services to families in need. In view of the widespread shortages of food, it comes as no surprise that combatant countries introduced food rationing.
Consider, for example, the case of London. In addition to establishing infant welfare centers, where pregnant women could obtain expert advice, borough councils employed more and more health visitors.
By , ninety-three of them provided pre- and postnatal assistance to mothers at home. Such efforts succeeded only to a limited extent, and as a result cities served increasingly as stages for the expression of popular unhappiness. Whereas urban milieus had at first fostered pro-war patriotism and continued to do so for a while, what city dwellers as well as soldiers had to endure militated more and more against the maintenance of national unity and support for the war effort.
Continuing shortages of food, despite rationing, led to angry demonstrations outside grocery stores, to scuffles among women who were standing in line, and in some cases to riots. What bred resentment among members of the lower and middle classes was not so much food scarcity per se as the growing realization that despite the shortages experienced by ordinary people the wealthy continued to eat well.
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The population harbors deep resentment of the supposed unjust distribution of available food supplies. Growing discontent as a result of food shortages was particularly strong in Eastern and Central Europe. Disgruntlement was more pronounced there than in western countries both because of greater scarcity and because of declining support there by citizens for the men in charge of governmental institutions. In Russia, in the summer of , large groups of women descended on a market in Moscow and refused to leave until merchants agreed to lower the prices of potatoes.
Riots began in the fall of , and they escalated during the next several years. They came to a climax in March , when demonstrations by Russian women set in motion a process that resulted in the end of the Imperial regime. On the Allied side, albeit to a lesser extent, food protests also worked to undermine support for the war effort. In Turin in August of , unrest that had to do with supplies and prices of things to eat went on for three days.
Finally, the Italian government suppressed the uprising militarily. As a result, forty-one people were killed and were wounded. Urban protests, mainly by women, that were related to the lack of food were accompanied by strikes, in which the leading roles were played by working-class men.